I don’t remember exactly which religiously based political statement spurred that particular post (there are too many to count!); but it ended up generating a much livelier response than I anticipated. Most people were quick to recognize that I was criticizing the tendency of some modern-day Christians to overly intermingle faith and politics. Some people heartily agreed with me while others vehemently disagreed. After a bit of friendly debate, my friend Chris Linzey decided to write a blog post in critique of my original criticism. So, since he called me out publicly, I figured it was only fitting that I should return the polemical favor and offer a corrective to his critique of my original criticism. Just kidding. This is less of a direct response to Chris and more of an opportunity for me to clarify why I posted what I posted and elaborate a bit further. My thanks to Chris, though, because I definitely wouldn’t have written this had he not challenged me. Iron sharpens iron.
The question we are seeking to answer is what role, if any, should Christians have in the political process? Should Christians vote? Should Christians run for public office? Should Christians legislate Christian principles in a nation where not everyone is Christian?
I propose that at least a partial answer to this question can be found by looking at the example of Jesus and the early Church. (Warning: this is a little long. Click here to jump straight to a recap and the main point.)
As you probably know, both Jesus’s ministry and the movement that came to be called “Christianity” began in the first century AD in the region of Judea which, at that time, was under the political and military control of Rome. The very fact that God’s people were subject to foreign rule was unacceptable to many of the religiously devout Judeans. They were expecting and hoping that God would send them a deliverer, a political and military leader who would liberate them from foreign oppression and reestablish a nation where God’s Law would reign supreme. (Scholars refer to this as “messianic expectation,” you can use that term to impress your friends.) When Jesus enters the scene, however, he does nothing of the sort. Jesus doesn’t rally armies and overthrow the Roman government and he doesn’t establish a political theocracy that forces everyone to obey the Mosaic Law. Instead, Jesus spends a lot of time teaching people that God is more interested in their hearts than he is in their behavior and that their behavior is really just an indicator of what is in their hearts anyway. Jesus invites other people to follow him and to join him in his ministry to the afflicted and the oppressed. He doesn’t run for office, he doesn’t lobby the Roman government, and he even tells people that they should pay their taxes to Rome! Some deliverer Jesus was! We do get some indications that Jesus knows he is king, but his kingship is totally different than the kingships the world was used to. Some of the Judean religious leaders who rejected Jesus (maybe because he was such an unexpected and, in their minds, disappointing messiah) used his claims to kingship as an excuse to force the Roman officials to execute him for supposed treason. Of course this was really a trumped-up charge; if Jesus really had come to overthrow Rome, he would have done it. About three days later, Jesus was raised from the dead. His closest followers were ecstatic (after they got done being afraid, of course). His resurrection proved that he really was the Messiah, and certainly NOW he would establish God’s kingdom on Earth (which obviously meant overthrowing Rome), or so they thought.
So when they had come together [after his resurrection], they asked him, “Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?”
Jesus patiently told them that they still didn’t quite get it and that he had different plans for them.
He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.”
So basically Jesus said, “I’m sending you out into the world to tell them about me and you will help them become my disciples just like I did for you.” No talk of politics, no talk of legislation, just powerful witnesses in word and lifestyle.
And thus the Church was born. Jesus’s followers obeyed his commands and they went into the world talking about who Jesus was and what Jesus had done and they invited people to join them in following Jesus and they established communities of Jesus-followers that continued to grow and multiply. By the end of the first century, there were communities of these Jesus-followers not just in Judea, but also all throughout modern-day Turkey, Greece, Italy (including Rome!) and possibly even into Spain! This expansion of the Church happened during a time in which the church had absolutely no political power or influence. In fact, becoming a Christian often came at a great cost. Becoming a follower of Jesus could cost you your family, your livelihood, and sometimes, even your life. And yet, somehow, this new movement continued to grow. There was something about the way these Christians lived, the way they loved each other, which ATTRACTED other people to them. The book of Acts seems to indicate that the more fierce the persecution, the faster the Church expanded. Once again, let me emphasize that all of this happened long before Christians had any real political power or influence; long before they could enforce “biblical principles” through legislation.
Several centuries later, under the emperor Constantine, Christianity became an officially recognized religion, and before long it became politically advantageous to become a Christian. In other words, people would “convert” to Christianity not because they actually believed, but because it would help them get ahead in the world. As Christianity grew in political power and influence, Christians began to force their beliefs upon other people in a way that was previously unprecedented and Christianity lost much of its attractive power. Some of the worst atrocities ever committed in Christ’s name were committed by Christians who had political power and influence.
For those of you who skipped to the short version, here is a short recap. Jesus was an unexpected messiah who operated not from a standpoint of political power, but from a standpoint of relational and attractive power. Likewise, the early church flourished and grew using relational and attractive power in a politically hostile environment long before it ever had any real political influence and power. When it finally did gain political influence and power, it was often used in terribly un-Christlike ways. The moral of the story seems to be that the more political power the Christians attain, the less effective we become at doing what we were actually called to do: ATTRACTING people and WINNING their hearts by living and loving in a NOTICEABLY DIFFERENT way than the world.
Many of those who critiqued my original post noted that the times have changed and our culture and political system now are completely different than they were in the first century. The first century Church didn’t live in a democratic republic where they actually had a voice in the political process. Surely if they had, it is argued, they would have exercised their right to vote and instill Christian values. After all, as one of my detractors (*COUGH*Chris Linzey*COUGH*) has stated, “We DO legislate morality. The only question is: WHOSE morality are we going to legislate?” In other words, every form of government is representative of SOMEONE’S form of morality, so if we get a say, why not have it be Christian morality? This makes sense on the surface, but there is something inherently wrong with that idea. Christian morality is only intended for Christians. Clubhouse rules only apply to those who are in the club. God doesn’t expect non-Christians to live like Christians. This gets back to the whole idea of heart and behavior. God is more interested in our heart than he is in our behavior. He knows that if our hearts change then our behavior will follow. When we legislate distinctly Christian principles (more on this phrase later), we are forcing non-Christians adhere to a standard that was intended for Christians and we bypass the heart and move straight to behavior. Additionally, by forcing others to obey Christian principles through legislation, the church loses one of its most powerful witnesses, its power to ATTRACT by virtue of being DISTINCT. The apostle Paul told the Christians at Philippi that their Christian conduct “in the midst of a crooked and twisted generation” would cause them to “shine as lights in the world” (Philippians 2:15). Lights shine brightest in the dark. Perhaps comparative darkness of Roman political system is what made the light of Christianity so attractive. This seems to be a recurring theme in the New Testament.
What’s more, by legislating Christian behavior, we are judging those who fail to live accordingly (even though they never agreed to live that way). Yes, it is judgment, because if they disobey the legislation they are breaking the law and they will face a judge in court and be punished. The apostle Paul talks about something very similar in his first letter to the Jesus-followers in the ancient city of Corinth. Apparently one of the Christians there had been engaged in some pretty scandalous sexual activity that was unacceptable for a person who claimed to be a follower of Christ. Paul passes judgment on this man’s behavior, but he does so precisely because this man already identified himself as a Christian and thereby WILLINGLY ACCEPTED Christian morality. Paul goes on to write this very important statement.
For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Is it not those inside the church whom you are to judge? God judges those outside.
-1 Corinthians 5:12-13a
The moral of the story here? We are not to judge non-Christians by Christian standards. That, however, that is exactly what we do when we legislate distinctly Christian principles.
Earlier I mentioned that I would elaborate on the phrase “distinctly Christian principles.” I believe that a line can be drawn between principles that are distinctly Christian and principles that point to universal human rights and the common good. (Some people say that any principle that points to the common good is, by definition, a Christian principle. While I understand and appreciate where that sentiment, I think it’s a somewhat misleading and ultimately unhelpful platitude.) For example, murder, theft, and rape are almost universally condemned, not only by nearly every major religious group but also by people who are not religious. (Yes, there are some exceptions, but the exceptions basically prove the rule.) It is for this reason that I do not have a problem with legislation that prohibits such behavior; I don’t believe they are distinctly Christian principles. I also don’t have a problem with Christians participating in a government that works to advance universal human rights and the common good, so long as they are not forcing people to conform to distinctly Christian principles. Of course, distinguishing which principles are distinctly Christian and which point to universal human rights and the common good is a subject for a different post.
For me, this is the bottom line: The church will be most effective doing what it was designed to do if we focus more on MODELING the way of Christ and WINNING others’ hearts by being ATTRACTIVE and RELATIONAL than if we try to FORCE non-Christians to live like Christians through LEGISLATION.
For those of you who have been keeping up with this friendly debate between my friend Chris Linzey and myself, he has posted a rebuttal to my blog post; you can read it here. Following are a few of my thoughts in response to his rebuttal.
Actually, I agree with much of what Chris wrote in his rebuttal. My main issue is that he seemed to draw inferences from what I wrote and then rebut those inferences. In other words, his rebuttal seemed to focus less on what I actually said and more on what he assumed I meant by what I said. The problem I have is that his inferences aren’t an accurate reflection of what I meant by what I said. So, in effect, Chris was knocking down a straw man. I do, however, realize that burden to be clear lies on the communicator and so I take responsibility for my lack of clarity and I will attempt to clear up some misunderstandings here.
In my article I make it very clear that Jesus didn’t run for office or participate in the Roman government or initiate a new political system of his own. It seems that Chris inferred (and maybe you did too) that I was saying that since Jesus didn’t work for the government then Christian’s shouldn’t either and since Jesus was an itinerant preacher than that’s what all Christians need to be as well. That is certainly not what I intended by what I said; I apologize if that wasn’t clear. Chris writes the following
People are told to behave righteously as believers whatever their jobs might be. Do you work for the government? Great! Be a Christian on your job. There is nothing wrong with government work. There is nothing wrong with believers being part of the system. We are simply called to do it in a God-honoring way. While Jesus didn’t run for office, we can.
I wholeheartedly agree. We have evidence that there were governmental officials and soldiers of various ranks who became followers of Jesus in the early years of the movement and there is no indication that Jesus or Paul ever told them that they had to stop working for the government. I myself am a Chaplain Candidate in the Indiana Army National Guard, so it would be pretty hypocritical of me to say that Christians can’t work for the government (or even run for office). Please let me clarify by saying that I don’t see a problem with Christians participating in government so long as they do not use the government as a means of forcing Christian principles on non-Christians.
This has been my primary concern along, the imposition of distinctly Christian principles on non-Christians. Chris is right to point out that I have not provided a clear delineation between “distinctly Christian principles” and “universal human rights.” The reason for that is simple: it’s complicated. There is no clear list of what constitutes a distinctly Christian principle and what constitutes a universal human right. I believe this is the heart of the disagreement between Chris and me. I do, however, think the disagreement is more apparent than real and more a matter of semantics than a matter of principle. I actually think that, in principle, Chris agrees with me more than he disagrees me. Let’s start with some super clear examples, I am confident that Chris would agree with me that the government should not be used to force non-Christians to be baptized or to pay tithes to a local Christian church or to recite the Lord’s Prayer in school. These are clearly “distinctly Christian principles” and I am confident that Chris would not advocate enacting legislation that forces them upon non-Christians.
Now let’s get a little bit more ambiguous. Chris and I both agree that legislation prohibiting and punishing murder is a good idea. I argue that this principle upholds a universal human right. Although I can understand why Chris (or someone else) may argue that it is a Christian principle, I don’t think it is a distinctly Christian principle. Just about any reasonable person agrees that murder is a hindrance to a well-functioning society. The same could be said about rape, kidnapping, theft, etc.
Now to get into some really murky waters: sexual ethics. To what extent should the government be able to legislate our sex lives? This has become a (fifty shades of) gray area for a lot of people, including many Christians. I can think of arguments on both sides of this; I will not attempt to provide an answer here, maybe in a future post.
Let me close with a very clear example of where we have used legislation to force distinctly Christian principles on non-Christians. In the state where I live alcohol sales on Sunday are prohibited by law. This is a distinctly Christian principle, even though there are many Christians who disagree with it! Even if you believe that Christians should not drink alcohol on Sundays, or ever, you have no business forcing that belief on people who don’t hold that religious conviction through legislation.
Once again, for me, this is the bottom line: The church will be most effective doing what it was designed to do if we focus more on MODELING the way of Christ and WINNING others’ hearts by being ATTRACTIVE and RELATIONAL than if we try to FORCE non-Christians to live like Christians through LEGISLATION.
The problem with your analysis is that it spiritualizes legislation as in trying to make non-Christians have Christian conduct. This is not the case. Christians are not forcing Christianity but merely making sure the freedoms we have been raised with in America can continue to the next generation. If taking a stand politically, or voting, cause a good result in society that is a positive thing that will enable the gospel to flourish. This does not ignore the fact that Christianity can and does flourish under oppression but neither did Jesus teach us to stick our heads in the samd while our freedoms are eroded politically. Being a good citizen in a democracy involves voting. Christ’s disciples were not given that opportunity.
Thanks for taking time to respond. I think you may have oversimplified things a bit; there are some laws designed to protect our freedoms, but there are and have been laws that do in fact force non-Christians to abide by Christian principles. Those are the ones that I address in this post.
So you would rather we got rid of laws against murder, since they are trying to force non-Christians to live by Christian principles?
I pretty much agree with this post. As far as the question of “WHOSE morality are we going to legislate?”, it’s a very valid question. Now, I’m more extreme regarding this question in that I’m a libertarian. So, my answer would be that it’s not the governments role to enforce any type of morality, but only to offer protection (which I suppose you could argue is A type of morality, but nevertheless, I feel that it draws a distinct line). So laws against murder, rape, theft, etc… would still be enforced. And it’s also why I’m pro-life. It’s not an issue of morality, it’s an issue of protection. So, I think libertarianism would be compatible with this. But, even if you are not a libertarian, I think this article is very valid, because, at the very least, it argues that political power shouldn’t be the primary means of advancing God’s kingdom. Let’s take the pro-life issue. I vote pro-life, so yeah, i want the government to be involved, but I realize that true change happens at the heart level, and is done via voluntary organizations like the church and Life Network.
Thanks for taking the time to respond. I don’t know if I’d classify myself as a libertarian or not, I’m not terribly big on labels, but it seems like we agree on a number of principles. I appreciate your comment.
Agreed, Chance. All laws are legislated morality. As Christians, I would think we would rather have Christ’s morality legislated than Satan’s, but maybe that’s just me.
Also, I have yet to find a Christian who thinks the primary means of advancing God’s Kingdom is thru laws. But good laws are a by-product of that advancement.
I read it and I hated it and then I agreed a little with a small part of it and then I understood it better BUT part of me objected that ‘Our Founding Fathers ….’
Then I had to remember that the reason our American Govt was created so limited was so it would not complete with the Lord for our Hearts and Minds. Making a person live a Christian life does not make a Christian it only makes a person who fears (or worships) the Govt. Now we have become a nation of robust law and weak faith which is exactly what neither God nor our Founders wanted.
Doug, your comment made me laugh. I appreciate your honesty and I’m glad you gave it a second chance. Thanks for taking the time to comment.
American government, at the local, state and federal levels, is based in law upon representation which includes majority rule and the majority must protect the minority. If the majority of people who vote are Christian and or adhere to universal human rights that originate from God, then the laws of the land will reflect that. If the majority of the people are not Christian or do not adhere to universal human rights that originate from God, then the laws of that land will reflect that.
I agree that as Christians “we focus more on MODELING the way of Christ and WINNING others’ hearts by being ATTRACTIVE and RELATIONAL than if we try to FORCE non-Christians to live like Christians through LEGISLATION.” Legislation will reflect the will of the majority and the majority, in a perfect world, will dutifully protect the universal rights originating from God of the minority.
Still, what can be most concerning is the disconnect between the current effect of past legislation and the historically presented basis of the motives for said legislation (often assumed to be Christian in origin but “1776 ” Christianity likely differed from its 2015 counterpart). Of significance, much of our civil rights has emerged because of questioning the finality of legislation. In such cases, the majority had not been ruled by Christian ethics and, subsequently, the legislation put into effect reflected a different set of values. While I don’t subscribe to a malleable interpretation of the bill of rights, I do feel compelled to remember our laws are a reflection of our imperfect judgment, thankfully ameliorated by a merciful God. This recognition, when taught to the next generation, can assist in cultivating an informed majority.
Very interesting points. I have to say, I found your tweet spot on and it’s encouraging that you have the moxie (yes, old word) to post it. It’s been frustrating me for a while to see other Christians posting about the backwardness of recent legislation and how we need to stand against it, as if there is no question about the Bible’s role in our non-religious government.
I was wondering if you’ve read the recent article published by Relevant Magazine about Trump. What reminded me of this post was– not Trump– the author’s perspective about voting and getting involved. It definitely got me thinking about where our priorities lie.
I appreciate the time and effort put into this post. Some things seem to become complicated. In the least common denominator God let’s us know in the Bible that His passionate will is that He desires that all people be saved and that they also come unto a (full) knowledge of the truth. Thus Jesus told his disciples, and axiomatically all Christians to follow, that they would be witnesses unto him unto all the world (eventually). This meant they would need to continue in the Word, the scriptures, and of course make known the gospel to others by way of preaching and of course, living it. Now the question was should Christians vote, run for office, be involved with/in government which could include be involved with law making (Congress) etc. The scriptures do not say this is prohibited. The scriptures do say to work heartily as to the Lord. Of Christians are supposed to live as the scriptures command us to live. If a Christian chooses to run for office they could in fact be a positive influence in their sphere of influence. History does have volumes about Christians who welded power wrongfully hurting and even killing others in the name of God or religion. Their bad examples don’t mean that Christians shouldn’t be involved with Givernment. If Christians choose to be involved with politics, then it behooves them to set the Godly example and we’ve been taught you don’t evangelize on the jib during working hours, you do your job. But if you want to share the gospel off the job, outside of working hours, more power to us, we ought to! Why? Because God desires that all people be saved and come unto a knowledge of the truth! You might reach that government coworker that never knew the truth. Our Constitution was inspired in great part by men who loved God who had vision of how a country could be governed by laws that were based on Christian principles. Our government has laws regarding separation of church and state. Keep it simple. If you work for the government, be the best example of a Christian you can be. Nothing wrong with passing laws that are Based in Christian ethics. Why? Because god’s Word is true and any law passed based on biblical truth will always be good for a person. Now I’m not talking about what day of the week you should worship, what prayer you should pray or anything like that. I’m talking about laws that maintain order, protect freedoms, protect our right to speak freely, etc. such things are all addressed in the Church epistles how we are to treat one another. These General biblical principles will benefit believers and nonbelievers alike. Where in the world would this nation be today if men and women of biblical integrity did not take a stand and push through (some) legislation that moved our country forward in a positive way? There are many laws that could be cited that are biblically based. Thank God for those laws and thank God for the people that have gotten involved in government and stood their ground to see that laws that protect our certain inalienable rights remain.
I do not think we can say that Christians should not be involved in government or not inact laws that are based on Christian ethics. Now dictating that persons have to worship God and worship Him a certain way would not be right. We don’t legislate Christianity. People have freedom to worship as they please. We are to live it and teach it as I’ve mentioned above, no matter our occupation.